Also a chymicall dictionary explaining hard places and words met withall in the writings of Paracelsus, and other obscure authors. All which are faithfully translated out of the Latin into the English tongue, by J. Cosmopolite ou nouvelle lumiere chimyque Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. Author sum qui Divi Leschi genus amo, approximately approximately They had a large number of editions and translations, and exerted great influence on both later alchemists and early science of chemistry.
Michael Maier, a contemporary of Sendivogius and author of several important works on alchemy, even represented him as the greatest living alchemist, the last link in the chain of adepts, started by Hermes Trismegistos in Egypt. Interestingly, the Dialogus is actually a literary work of the type discussed, featuring a misguided and foolish alchemist, who has an opportunity to question Nature and mercury about their secrets but does not understand and misinterprets their answers.
The same alchemist returns in the last treatise on sulphur and the results are the same. Soon after his death, the legend of Sendivogius took a surprising turn, which determined his reputation for over three centuries. In a letter was sent from Warsaw to an unidentified recipient in France, who had asked the author for information on the life of Sendivogius. It was written by Pierre Des Noyers — , secretary of the Queen of Poland and active participant of the European network of scholars.
The story he presented formed the nucleus of the negative legend of Sendivogius. Des Noyers claimed that the Pole was ignorant of alchemy and did not write De lapide philosophorum but only helped its true author escape from prison in Saxony. As a result of the tortures he had suffered in prison, the Cosmopolite soon died and Sendivogius married his widow, hoping that she knew the secret of transmutation.
He remained to be obsessed by alchemy for the rest of his miserable life and eventually died in poverty. Ten years later, in , another letter on the life of Sendivogius was written by Girolamo Pinocci — , a merchant and diplomat, secretary of the King of Poland. He repeated the story told by Des Noyers and embellished it with further details. Bell and Sons, Ltd. Michael sendivogius as a Literary Anti-hero 65 , the Englishman-Cosmopolite was identified with the elusive Scottish adept Alexander Seton, who had travelled around Europe performing public transmutations.
This completed the development of the black legend, which was later repeated in its established form by early historians of alchemy. But the story was exciting, included both mystery and adventure, treated love, death, and obsession, featured a true adept and a foolish impostor, and had a clear moral lesson to teach — so it actually put together all the key aspects of earlier popular depictions of the alchemist in his two literary personae: the hero and the anti-hero.
The two stereotypes which developed through the centuries were thus captured in their fully blown and condensed form into one compelling story with a lively plot. Edward Kelley. Entitled Die Adepten [The Adepts], it was first printed in in a literary periodical Charitas, published in Regensburg by Eduard von Schenk — , a Bavarian statesman and poet. Eduard von Schenk Regensburg: , 1— Joseph Sarreiter Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, , , 68— Die Abenteuer des Polen sendivogius [The Adventures of the Pole Sendivogius], as well as the other two parts of the book, were so unoriginal that some reviewers soon discovered their sources and accused Meyrink of plagiarism.
After he escaped, he became a humble man and travelled around Europe, warning people of the risks of practicing alchemy. Eventually he took refuge in the mountains of Scharzwald, where he lived with a Gypsy woman. Gustav Meyrink Berlin: Scherl, , —; repr. Darmstadt: Verlag Wolfgang Roller, , and several ebook editions. Warszawa: Jan Jaworski, Michael sendivogius as a Literary Anti-hero 67 Fools. He continued writing on emigration in France, but did not publish anything, and in his last will ordered to burn all manuscripts. Literatura krajowa w okresie Romantyzmu —, ed. A mysterious-historical novel about the eerie occultist], trans.
The apparent similarities may rather be due to the general spirit of the age, while more obvious influences are those of Johann Wolfgang Goethe and — especially — E. Thus the novel escapes narrow categorisation, being syncretic or eclectic in its various levels of meaning and style.
The stranger makes the Pole interested in alchemy, which soon becomes an obsession. With his help, he finds a manuscript and some tincture in the grave of another adept, Anathemius Tholden, in whose daughter the Cosmopolite falls in love. He has to abandon his immortality in order to marry her, but later she becomes a lover of Sendivogius, while his own wife is seduced by his friend Rogosz. He also uses it for dissolute life, but when it is finished, he falls into poverty and keeps trying to discover the alchemical secret of immortality. He finally succeeds in a very old age but it does not bring him happiness.
Sendivogius, on the other hand, is a complex character, often mean and cynical, sacrificing his life, love, friendships, and even his soul for just one goal which is not worth it. Although he eventually reaches it, the achievement does not bring consolation.
The book contains lengthy passages of internal monologues, in which Sendivogius considers many philosophical and religious questions related to the nature of God, Nature, knowledge, power, and love. A novel from the times of the French Revolution], trans. Maria Komornicka, 3 vols. It was first staged and printed in , and is often considered to be the best tragedy written in Czech in the 19th century. The text was also reprinted in , and Thus Sendivogius is not an anti-hero in this case, but rather a typical schwarzer Charakter. Another drama, this time with Sendivogius as the main character, was planned by Maria Ilnicka — , a poet, feminist and revolutionary.
Only the first part of her play Alchemik [The Alchemist], written in verse, was published in and most probably it was never completed. In the end, Michael announces that he is a brother of Christ and with the alchemical gold, once he can make it, he will conquer Satan and make everyone happy.
An old man arrives, whom she does not recognise it is evidently Sendivogius , and they talk about what is important in life. When she insists that money is what count, the old man gives her a pouch of gold and leaves. Obraz dramatyczny.
Paules is not like him, it is too big. In all the works of all these 38 writers, there is almost nothing that advances to any viable extent "the knowledge of chemical fact or thought, however they may have appealed to those who cultivated the philosophy of alchemy as such. Prague: Volvox Globator, Tractatus alchymicus Sec. Mylio et aliis. Robert Brain, w. In his lordship's prosperity Sir Fulke Grevil, lord Brookes, was his great friend and acquaintance; but when he was in disgrace and want, he was so unworthy as to forbid his butler to let him have any more small beer, which he had often sent for, his stomach being nice, and the small beere of Grayes Inne not liking his pallet.
A dramatic picture. That is certainly the reason why the play features, besides Seton the Cosmopolite, a number of characters loosely based on historical figures related to Sendivogius, who were not present in the traditional story. He learns that Seton, whom he had met earlier, has been imprisoned in Dresden by Count Ulrych. His wife Anna tries to free him without success, then Sendivogius arrives and Ulrych tells him that Seton has discovered the alchemical secret. He does not divulge the secret even under torture but Sendivogius manages to set him free.
They escape to Poland but Seton dies. The alchemist agrees, thus rejecting his true love. A former friend zacharias accuses Sendivogius of practicing magic and he is arrested. His uncle and Jadwiga come to Prague and ask the Emperor to release the alchemist, which is granted.
Sendivogius finally realises how wrong he was in believing the sinful promises of alchemy rather than the voice of his heart — and goes back to Poland with Jadwiga. Until that final conversion which is presented as mainly religious , he is definitely a mean character or anti-hero of the play. Drama in five acts, originally written in verse, Warszawa: J. Unger, He also wrote novels and stories, presenting his findings in a more popular and dramatised way.
The author of this article examines these main points of Jungian program within the context of its parallelism with paracelsian alchemical philosophy of nature: the process of nature, alchemical dialectics and the universal analogy of micro- and macrocosmos. At the beginning of his work, creating his psychology Jung assumed similar ideas. Later, when he noticed this similarity, alchemy became very helpful in his research of psyche, because thanks to them he conceptualised the successive aspects of polar structure of dynamical psychical reality, which--like his alchemical predecessors--he used to explain basics of the micro- and macro-world.
Casebooks in Early Modern England:. PubMed Central. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules.
These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter.
It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. ALCHEMIC solves chemical kinetics problems, including gas-grain interactions, surface reactions, deuterium fractionization, and transport phenomena and can model the time-dependent chemical evolution of molecular clouds, hot cores, corinos, and protoplanetary disks.
How predictive could alchemical derivatives be? The chemical space contains all possible compounds that can be imagined.
Its size easily equals the number of fundamental particles in the observable universe. Rational design of compounds aims to find those sectors of the chemical space where compounds optimize a set of desired properties. Then, rational design demands tools to efficiently navigate the chemical space. Ab initio alchemical derivatives offer the possibility to navigate, without empiricism, the energy landscape through alchemical transformations. An alchemical transformation is any process, physical or fictitious, that connects to points in the chemical space. In this work, those transformations are constructed as a perturbative expansion of the energy with respect to perturbations in the stoichiometry.
The response functions of that expansion are what is called alchemical derivatives. In this work we assess how effective alchemical derivatives are in predicting energy changes associated to changes in the composition. We do this by including in the expansion, for the first time, electrostatic, polarization and electron-transfer effects. The system we chose is one that challenges alchemical derivatives because none of these effects dominates its behavior.
The transmutations studied here correspond to substitutional doping of Al 13 with up to four atoms of Si, Al n Si n. Two types of transformations are considered, those in which the number of electrons remains constant and those in which the number of electrons also changes.
It is found that contrary to what has been reported before, polarization cannot be neglected. If polarization is not included, alchemical derivatives fail to predict the change of energy and the relative energy between isomers. For isoelectronic substitution of four or more atoms, the perturbative approach collapses because the strength of the perturbation becomes too strong to guarantee convergence of the series. It is shown, however, that if only one atom is mutated at a. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg.
This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…. Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the s to the present.
In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry.
Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science. Distilling reliable remedies: Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi between alchemical learning and craft practice.
Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi, written in German and first published in Strasbourg in , was the first printed manual on the distillation of medicinal waters.
Although influential among early modern audiences and well known to modern scholars, its intriguing blend of intellectual and practical traditions has thus far received little attention. This paper identifies these strands in Brunschwig's technical instructions and shows how they intertwine in the production of reliable remedies. Exploring the intellectual dimension of Brunschwig's work, I argue that his concept of distillation is shaped by an alchemical understanding of matter, especially by the writings on 'quintessence' of the fourteenth-century alchemist John of Rupescissa.
To realise this concept in the workshop, Brunschwig emphasises the central importance of the body and its senses to ensure true craftsmanship. Brunschwig's printed manual was as much a product of skilled artisanal practices as the distilled waters it describes, and I argue that it was shaped by the same concerns about technical precision and reliability. FESetup is a new pipeline tool which can be used flexibly within larger workflows. Ligands are automatically parametrized with AM1-BCC, and atom mappings for a single topology description are computed with a maximum common substructure search MCSS algorithm.
An abstract molecular dynamics MD engine can be used for equilibration prior to free energy setup or standalone. Ease of use, robustness of the code, and automation where it is feasible are the main development goals. The project follows an open development model, and we welcome contributions.
Alchemical free energy methods have gained much importance recently from several reports of improved ligand-protein binding affinity predictions based on their implementation using molecular dynamics simulations. A large number of variants of such methods implementing different accelerated sampling techniques and free energy estimators are available, each claimed to be better than the others in its own way. However, the key features of reproducibility and quantification of associated uncertainties in such methods have barely been discussed.
Here, we apply a systematic protocol for uncertainty quantification to a number of popular alchemical free energy methods, covering both absolute and relative free energy predictions. We show that a reliable measure of error estimation is provided by ensemble simulation-an ensemble of independent MD simulations-which applies irrespective of the free energy method. The need to use ensemble methods is fundamental and holds regardless of the duration of time of the molecular dynamics simulations performed.
Exploring Chemical Space with the Alchemical Derivatives. In this paper, we verify the usefulness of the alchemical derivatives in the prediction of chemical properties. We concentrate on the stability of the transmutation products, where the term "transmutation" means the change of the nuclear charge at an atomic site at constant number of electrons. As illustrative transmutations showing the potential of the method in exploring chemical space, we present some examples of increasing complexity starting with the deprotonation, continuing with the transmutation of the nitrogen molecule, and ending with the substitution of isoelectronic B-N units for C-C units and N units for C-H units in carbocyclic systems.
The basis set influence on the qualitative and quantitative accuracies of the alchemical predictions was investigated. The alchemical deprotonation energy from the second order Taylor expansion correlates well with the vertical deprotonation energy and can be used as a preliminary indicator for the experimental deprotonation energy.
The results of calculations for the BN derivatives of benzene and pyrene show that this method has great potential for efficient and accurate scanning of chemical space. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe. This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period.
The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned university-trained individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.
Although influential among early modern audiences and well-known to modern scholars, its intriguing blend of intellectual and practical traditions has thus far received little attention. Establishing the Canon: George Ripley and his alchemical sources. George Ripley, Canon of Bridlington ca. Yet Ripley's frequently baffling texts have proved resistant to scholarly interpretation. This paper attempts to unravel some of Ripley's alchemical theories and practice, firstly by identifying his major sources, and secondly by gauging his response to these texts.
For instance, although Ripley's interest in the corpus of alchemical texts pseudonymously attributed to Ramon Lull is well documented, it transpires that his best known work, the Compound of Alchemy, or Twelve Gates, is actually based not on a Lullian work, but on a Latin treatise that Ripley attributed to the little-known alchemist, Guido de Montanor. Further clues to Ripley's alchemical thought can be obtained by considering his handling of a potential conflict between his two authorities, Lull and Guido.
A Short Book of Dialogues and Novum Lumen Chymicum (Alchemical Manuscripts 29) - Kindle edition by Johann Glauber, Hans Nintzel, Philip Wheeler. A Short Book of Dialogues and Novum Lumen Chymicum (Alchemical Manuscripts 29) eBook: Johann Glauber, Hans Nintzel, Philip Wheeler, Christopher.
The resulting insights into Ripley's alchemy provide an instrument for assessing which of Ripley's pseudoepigraphic works can be truly called "canonical". Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,, years ago.
Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia.
We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly , years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.
The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…. This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science. This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science.
While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections.
Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field.
It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,—65, years ago.
Here, we analyze the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and of modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously reported.
European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions.
The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data.
Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor. Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42, years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts.
Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42, year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites.
Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain c. All rights reserved.
Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion.
The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication.
When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted.
The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force.
In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans AMH the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. This article illustrates three examples supporting the modern value of early writings in dentistry and medicine. First, by studying cases described in works published long before the era of genetic science, we are able to develop new hypotheses about familial conditions and their genetic roots.
Tooth transposition is presented as an example. Second, old writings may lead us to valuable historical insights and perspectives in medicine that can be revealed only in retrospective analysis. An example of this kind of historical analysis uncovers why dentistry became unnaturally separated from mainstream medicine in the 19th century. Third, early writings become keys to unlocking forgotten knowledge that enriches our understanding of historically significant people and events. The discovery of Norman Kingsley's long forgotten pyrographic paintings after Rembrandt portraits is used as an example.
Libraries, the traditional custodians of these valued old texts, must continue to be supported, and not undermined by the paperless digital revolution. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history. This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history.
The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in , and became extinct in the s or s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe.
Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's publication.
The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history. Marginalia, commonplaces, and correspondence: scribal exchange in early modern science.
In recent years, historians of science have increasingly turned their attention to the "print culture" of early modern science. These studies have revealed that printing, as both a technology and a social and economic system, structured the forms and meanings of natural knowledge. Yet in early modern Europe, naturalists, including John Aubrey, John Evelyn, and John Ray, whose work is discussed in this paper, often shared and read scientific texts in manuscript either before or in lieu of printing.
Scribal exchange, exemplified in the circulation of writings like commonplace books, marginalia, manuscript treatises, and correspondence, was the primary means by which communities of naturalists constructed scientific knowledge. Print and manuscript were necessary partners. Manuscript fostered close collaboration, and could be circulated relatively cheaply; but, unlike print, it could not reliably secure priority or survival for posterity. Naturalists approached scribal and print communication strategically, choosing the medium that best suited their goals at any given moment.
As a result, print and scribal modes of disseminating information, constructing natural knowledge, and organizing communities developed in tandem. Practices typically associated with print culture manifested themselves in scribal texts and exchanges, and vice versa. Salting out the polar polymorph: analysis by alchemical solvent transformation. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation.
Hippocrates' complaint and the scientific ethos in early modern England. Among the elements of the modern scientific ethos, as identified by R. Merton and others, is the commitment of individual effort to a long-term inquiry that may not bring substantial results in a lifetime. The challenge this presents was encapsulated in the aphorism of the ancient Greek physician, Hippocrates of Kos: vita brevis, ars longa life is short, art is long.
This article explores how this complaint was answered in the early modern period by Francis Bacon's call for the inauguration of the sciences over several generations, thereby imagining a succession of lives added together over time. However, Bacon also explored another response to Hippocrates: the devotion of a 'whole life', whether brief or long, to science. The endorsement of long-term inquiry in combination with intensive lifetime involvement was embraced by some leading Fellows of the Royal Society, such as Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke.
The problem for individuals, however, was to find satisfaction in science despite concerns, in some fields, that current observations and experiments would not yield material able to be extended by future investigations. Smallpox vaccination: an early start of modern medicine in America.
Smallpox was eradicated by the World Health Organization in Inoculation was an early formof vaccination that used live virus from active pustules to induce a milder, but still sometimesdeadly, case of disease. Washington has been credited with helping to ease the burden ofsmallpox on the Army which improved the odds of success against the British. When EdwardJenner's vaccine reached America it was more readily accepted by political and medical leadersdue the success of Washington's inoculation campaign. The Founding Fathers argued thatsmallpox vaccination was the greatest discovery in modern medicine and they were likely correctthat it helped to usher in the modern era of vaccinology.
Metaphors and images of cancer in early modern Europe. Drawing on learned medical writing about cancer and on nonmedical texts that used cancer as a metaphor for hateful cultural, social, religious, or political phenomena that warranted drastic measures, this article traces the metaphors and images that framed the perception and experience of cancer in the early modern period.
It finds that cancer was closely associated with notions of impurity and a visible destruction of the body's surface and was diagnosed primarily in women, as breast and uterine cancer. Putrid, corrosive cancerous humor was thought not only to accumulate and eat its way into the surrounding flesh but also to spread, like the seeds of a plant, "infecting" the whole body.
This infectious quality, the putrid secretions, and the often horrendous smell emanating from cancer victims raised fears, in turn, of contagion and were taken to justify a separation of cancer patients from the rest of society. This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos the crab.
It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over 'aggravating' the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous 'cures' including caustics and surgery.
Assessing an early modern Fenland population: Whittlesey Cambridgeshire. Improvement writers argued that drainage would bring prosperity and population growth to fenland communities; locals counter-argued that their communities were already thriving. The detailed surviving records from early modern Whittlesey, in the Isle of Ely, are analysed here to test the accuracy of these opposing claims. Using the returns of the Lay Subsidy, the ecclesiastical census, the Lady Day Hearth Tax records and the Compton Census, together with bishops' transcripts and probate inventories, this article finds that although the population did indeed increase after drainage, the pre-drainage population was also increasing.
The Michaelmas Hearth Tax records are analysed to uncover something of the character of the inhabitants and the Lady Day returns are then used to test the relative wealth of the community compared with that of sub-regions throughout England identified by Tom Arkell. Finally, there is a discussion of Whittlesey's housing stock. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.
The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence.
There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms.
Hydration free energy calculations have become important tests of force fields. Alchemical free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations provide a rigorous way to calculate these free energies for a particular force field, given sufficient sampling. Here, we report results of alchemical hydration free energy calculations for the set of small molecules comprising the Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands SAMPL challenge.
The test set consists of ethane, biphenyl, and a dibenzyl dioxin, as well as a series of chlorinated derivatives of each. We also find a number of chemical trends within each molecular series which we can explain, but there are also some surprises, including some that are captured by the calculations and some that are not. This dissertation looks at three categories of ceramics and the creation of a hybrid culture during the Early Modern and Modern period in Ireland. During these time periods Ireland was a part of the English global colonial enterprises, and was the site of many legal and cultural changes due to its subordinate position in the hierarchy of socio-political and economic phenomenon that characterize the pinnacle of British global power.
This study looks to understand how these powers articulated with England's one European colony, Ireland, and if that articulation has similarities to other colonial cultures across time and space. To study the possibility of hybridity between the Irish and English inhabitants of Ireland during the Post-Medieval Period, three categories of ceramics have been analyzed. Fine earthenwares in the form of tablewares and tea sets were macroscopically analyzed for patterns, age, and place of origin.
Coarse earthenwares were subjected to X-ray florescence to look for patterns in the spectral data to see if a point of origin could be ascribed to them. And lastly, white ball clay pipe fragments were both macroscopically analyzed for makers' marks and subjected to X-ray florescence to verify their point of origin. The relationship between where these artifacts come from- if they are local productions or imports- and where they were disposed of- either across the landscaper or only associated with households of particular ethnicities- says something about how people negotiate their ethnic identities in colonial settings.
As people in Ireland adopt the English style of tea drinking and start to use English mass-produced fine earthenwares, it disrupts the local cottage industry of coarse earthenware manufacturing. What this study seeks to know is if there is a difference in the adoption of English tea drinking, and if the purchasing of certain types of ceramic vessels contributes to the performance of ethnic identity in a colonial setting.
Greek alchemists at work: ' alchemical laboratory' in the Greco-Roman Egypt. The paper focuses on the alchemical laboratory of ancient Greco-Egyptian alchemists, by taking into account especially the earliest alchemical texts both in the Greek and in the Syriac tradition , ascribed to Pseudo-Democritus, Maria the Jewish and Zosimus. The first part analyzes the possible relationships between the workshops of Egyptian craftsmen first of all, dyers, metals workers and glass workers and the activity of the alchemists.
The second part gives a general overview on the alchemical instruments described in the Corpus alchemicum. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.